The TCC Library has available handouts for APA, MLA and Turabian/Chicago formats, composed of examples using actual library resources available to students.
Each of the guides contain several sections:
- The first section shows examples of brief citations for quotes and paraphrasing within the text of the written paper.
- The second section gives examples of full citations to be listed at the end of the paper.
- The third section contains a sample list, called a Bibliography or Works Cited page.
Research is the process of finding and organizing information synthesized from a variety of resources; information extracted from traditional books and magazines, from movies, TV and radio, newspapers, computer web sites and of course from people. Information found from only one source may be biased, misleading or incomplete. To insure accuracy of your findings, many instructors will suggest you use a variety of both sources and formats.
As you are writing your paper, document the facts and quotes you obtained in your research process. Direct quotes, or copying word-for-word , is acceptable provided you first, put the quoted words within quotation marks, i.e. "quoted words," and second, provide a brief in-text citation.
This alerts the reader those were not your thoughts or words and indicates the origin of the quote.
An occasional direct quote is useful; using a 'string of pearls', or too many direct quotes to fill up space, is to be avoided by paraphrasing, re-writing the ideas and thoughts into your own words. Instructors prefer paraphrasing, as it demonstrates your understanding of the ideas and concepts and ability to restate them. Even when paraphrasing, citations are still included to indicate the original source of the ideas presented.
In an academic research paper, you, the writer, are to identify the sources of your information in such a way that the reader (instructor) can retrace your research footsteps and locate those same sources. The necessary information is a citation, and will allow the reader to locate a copy of the same resource, magazine article, edition of a book, or website, etc. The citations must be constructed with consistency, to easily provide the reader all the necessary identification information.
TCC Library has many handouts available to assist students in their research .
Among the most popular are:
Copies of the following publications are available in the TCC Library
MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers
7th edition, 2009, MLA, New York
Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association
6th edition, 2010, (2nd printing) APA, Washington, D. C.
A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations
Kate L. Turabian, 8th edition, 2013, University of Chicago Press, Chicago
The Research Paper Guide, prepared by the TCC Writing Center Staff, available at both the Writing Center and the Library, provides more detailed information on how to write an academic paper. Writing Center staff will "discuss with you the focus, organization, and development of your paper; we also can help you improve your sentence structure, grammar, and punctuation."